Sebastian Schultz » Information

The History of Theatre Design

Theatre most likely started as people doing rituals. People used masks and costumes to entertain people in the rituals. Later people started to leave out the ritual part of the performances. Theatre started around about 2500 years ago. The word theatre comes from the Greek word “theatron” which means “seeing place.” Greek theatre mostly developed in Athens. Plays were very important. Thousands of people went to the plays in ancient Greece. Even prisoners were released from jail for a short while to go and watch the plays. In Greece plays were important because they started off as events when they honoured Dionysus, the Greek god of the harvest and wine In early Greek theatres the directors and actors were all the same person. All actors were male and had exaggerated masks … Read entire article »

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The Design of Early Theatres

In an ancient Greek theatre there was a part called the orchestra. This was the stage in the centre of the theatre where people danced, performed religious ceremonies and acted out the plays. The skene was a big building that was behind the orchestra. From the word skene we get the words scene and scenery. The skene was used as a backstage and was the first piece of stage scenery. Before they used a big building they used a tent or a hut. The actors in the play used the skene to change their masks and costumes. Sometimes this building was painted and used as a backdrop. Some of the earlier theatres were made up of a flat space with an altar at the bottom of a hill. The audience stood … Read entire article »

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Concrete Bridges in South Africa

Paul Sauer bridge The Paul Sauer Bridge goes over the Storms river. It is located between George and Port Elizabeth. It is part of the N2 highway. The bridge was designed by an Italian architect named Riccardo Morandi. It was constructed using a special method. Instead of making the two sides and then meeting them in the middle, the two sides of the arch were built directly above the foundations and then tilted outwards over the gorge until they touched at the crown. The bridge was completed in 1958. It was widened in 1986. It was also rehabilitated. It is part of the N2, which is the only highway in the world, which is not in China or Italy that has three bridges higher than 152 metres. Bloukrans Bridge Bloukrans Bridge … Read entire article »

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Salvador Dali and Max Ernst

Salvador Dali Salvador Dali was a Spanish artist. He was born on 11 may 1904 and he died on 23 January 1989. He was brought up in a middle class home and his father was very strict, and his mother encouraged his paintings. He went to drawing school and later his father organised an exhibition of his son’s charcoal drawings in their home. He first went through the Cubism, Futurism and Metaphysical art movements. He joined the Surrealists in 1929, and he became the most famous representative of the movement. He had already been influencing them for over two years and the praised him for his paranoiac-critical method of accessing the subconscious. He finished his painting the Persistence of Memory in 1931. Salvador explained the surrealists by saying: “There is … Read entire article »

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What Was Surrealism and Where and Why Did it Originate?

This is the dictionary meaning for Surrealism. Dictionary: “Surrealism, noun. Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express, either verbally, in writing, or by any other manner, the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.” Surrealism is well known for its visual artworks and writings. Surrealism is a cultural movement and it began in the 1920’s. The artworks of Surrealism include unexpected positions of the objects in the artwork and surprise. Dada was another art movement that was going on during the First World War, and surrealism developed out of this. The centre of this movement was in Paris. Surrealism spread around the world from the 1920’s onwards, and it influenced many forms of art, … Read entire article »

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The Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombings

Hiroshima The United States bombed Hiroshima, in Japan, on 6 August 1945 with an atomic bomb. It was the first atomic bomb that had ever been dropped out of an aeroplane. The atomic bomb was the same as 20 000 tons of TNT. A B-29 bomber was used to bomb Hiroshima. The plane was called the Enola Gray. It had a crew of twelve men and the pilot of the plane was Colonel Paul Tibbets. The plane was named after his mother. The Enola Gay took off from Tinian, an island that is in the North Pacific, in the Marinas. The island was 1 500 miles south of Japan. It had to be modified to carry such a heavy load. It got new propellers and stronger engines. Two other bombers escorted the … Read entire article »

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Doolittle and the Doolittle Raid

On 18 April 1942, the USA attacked Japan. This was sixteen months after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour during world war 2 The small raid was led by Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle. Doolittle gathered up some volunteer pilots and then these pilots went through tough training and their planes were modified. Their plan was to take sixteen B-25 bombers on the aircraft carrier called the Hornet to go and bomb Japan. The men who were flying the planes had never launched a bomber off an aircraft carrier before and neither had anyone else because the planes were too big and heavy, and the aircraft carrier runways were too short. Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle did a good job of training these men. There were five men in each plane. They were … Read entire article »

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The San Bushmen Culture

The San Bushmen live in the Kalahari desert and on its borders. San bushmen speak lots of sub-divisions of a group of languages known for the clicks that you can hear in their pronunciation, represented in writing symbols, for example ! or / . The main language groups of the San include : !kung, Khomani, Vasekela, Mbarakwena, /Auni, Auen, /Gwi, //Ganaa, Kua, /Tannekwe, /Geinin, /Xoma, //Obanen Ganin , /Xam-kalke and !Xo. All the different San bushman Languages are part of the Khoisan language family. Here is an example of the bushman language and its meaning: !ke e: /xarra //ke and it means unity in diversity. To prevent the Khoisan languages are becoming extinct the languages are being introduced to schools. Traditionally the Bushmen do not wear a lot of clothing. Normally the men wear a small piece … Read entire article »

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African Musical Instruments the Kora and the Kosika

The kora Country of origin The kora comes from West Africa, but mostly Gambia. The kora also comes from the Mandika tribes. Physical description A kora is an instrument made from half a big calabash covered in cow skin to make a resonator and has a notched bridge like a guitar. The strings are traditionally made out of leather and gut but they have been replaced with nylon. A kora sounds like a harp and has twenty one strings, but sometimes it has more and sometimes it has less. Eleven of the strings of the kora are played by the left hand and ten are played by your right hand. Traditional use Traditionally koras come from griot families who are traditional storytellers, historians and genealogists. The calabashes that the kora is made from is also … Read entire article »

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African Instruments the Kuduzela

Country of origin The kudu horn originates from Africa. The kudu is widespread over Africa, extending to the Indian sub-continent and Arabia, and Jewish people use the kudu horn for religious purposes, as a “shofar.” The shofar is blown during services like Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Physical description The kudu horn is made from the horns of the lesser kudu. The elegant spiral horns of the lesser kudu are hollowed out to make the wind instrument called the kudu horn. The kudu horns are played by blowing into them trumpet style in a hole near the top of it. Traditional use In Africa horns are used as honey containers and musical instruments. The horns are thought to be the homes of powerful spirits.The horns of a kudu hollowed out as an aerophone are used … Read entire article »

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